The usage of industrial dyes is seen majorly in the textile sector. As the worldwide textile industry is registering a continuous growth, a similar expansion is obviously observed in the industrial dye sector, as well.
These dyes are used to some extent even in sectors such as printing inks, paper, paints, foodstuffs, and plastics. But, in these industries the role of dyes is limited. Thus, the focus of this article is primarily going to be on industrial dyes specific to textile manufacturing.
Textile dyes – salient points
Let us now briefly speak about a few salient points that give us a basic understanding of industrial dyes.
• Basically, dyes play the important role of giving different colors to various fabrics.
• Essentially, the dyes are divided into two categories: Natural dyes and synthetic dyes. As denoted by the name, dyes of the first- mentioned category come from natural substances like berries, roots, bark, and leaves. Likewise, synthetic dyes are made in a laboratory through some chemical processes.
• The efficiency of natural dyes is way lower than that of their synthetic counterparts. This is with respect to providing bright, attractive colors to fabrics lasting for a very long time. Also, natural variants are more expensive and hence; synthetic dyes are the ones that are predominantly seen in the textile sector.
• It has to be highlighted that dyes can be coated to the fabrics anytime during the manufacturing process. It’s not mandatory that dyeing should be done only at a specific stage of the process.
Industrial dyes in textile industry- Different types
Now, it will be worthwhile to succinctly elaborate upon a few of the major types of industrial dyes now commonly used in the textile sector. All these come under the “synthetic dye” category.”
• Direct dyes: In instances where bright colors are not chosen for a fabric, direct dyes denote as good options. These dyes, which are dissolvable in water, are reasonably inexpensive and it’s quite simple to apply them, too. Especially, when the concerned fabric is of cotton, direct dyes do a great job.
• Basic dyes: When it comes to dyeing fabrics like nylon, wool and silk, the basic dyes are highly dependable. For these dyes, acetic acid is the substance that is included into the dye bath for enhancing the absorption of the dye. Here, it must be mentioned that the usage of basic dyes is also present in the paper industry.
• Reactive dyes: The reactive dyes are of comparatively recent origin in the textile industry. These dyes are also called fiber- reactive dyes, and are made of anionic compounds that get easily dissolved in water. When it is intended to give a bright color to the fabric, the reactive dyes can be safely counted on. Even if a fabric with reactive dye is washed with other fabrics, its color remains unaffected.
• Disperse dyes: Disperse dyes are not dissolvable in water; they are made solely for adding color to cellulose acetate. Though the maximum use of these dyes is for coloring polyester fabrics, yet, occasionally; they are used even for georgette and nylon.
• Mordant dyes: Here, a mordant is brought in to increase resistance of the dye towards water, light, and sweat. Silk, polyester and rayon are some fabrics where mordant dyes are of immense help. Here, it is extremely crucial that the right mordant is chosen; or else, the cloth color changes completely in an unwanted way.
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